Our Military Ancestors

Alan has recently produced a very useful list of some of the many Lin(d)fields who have served in the armed forces(Ref. 1). It is particularly poignant to see so many of those involved were casualties of the First World War, with Britain and her empire losing nearly a million men between 1914 and 1918. Such enormous losses inevitably affected every family in the land, and the Lin(d)fields were no exception. What struck me about Alan’s list is the tremendous amount of information still to be discovered about our military ancestors, and it would be marvellous if some of our members were able to research some of these names in detail. The purpose of this article is to take a look at military records in general and the various sources of information accessible to the family historian; I also intend to use some examples from our own archives to show the sort of material which may be available.

Prior to the English Civil War (1642-49), there was no regular standing army. Previously, regiments had been raised to meet specific requirements, usually taking the name of the Colonels who formed them, and there are very few records of any of the troops who served. The Army List of Roundheads and Cavaliers (indexed by E. Peacock, 1874) records the officers who served during the Civil War and Commonwealth, but unfortunately there are no lists of common soldiers. After the Restoration (1660), the records become more abundant, although there are few useful biographical details until the nineteenth century. A comprehensive list of the many types of army records is impossible in an article such as this, and the serious researcher should consult some of the useful guides which have been produced in recent years. For instance, a good starting point would be the Public Record Office Information leaflet, ‘British Army Records as Sources for Biography and Genealogy’, and Stella Colwell’s Dictionary of Genealogical Sources in the Public Record Office (1992) is also very useful.

However, mention must be made of some of the more important sources which the family researcher would be advised to consult, at least to begin with. The Army Lists, for instance, provide personal information about officers; these are available from 1754 in some of the larger public reference libraries. The manuscript records for 1702 to 1752 can be consulted in the PRO under WO 64. Unfortunately, there are few family details in the earlier records but the introduction of systematic records of service for the Army and Royal Navy in 1829 substantially increased the available information (especially those kept under WO 25 and WO 76). These records contain date and place of birth, details of service career, details of marriage and the births of children.

For other ranks, knowing the name of the regiment is a distinct advantage when it comes to searching the many and varied records. The attestation and discharge documents (WO 97) cover the years 1756-1913 and provide much information: place of birth, age on enlistment, a physical description, previous occupation and intended place of residence on discharge. They also give details of career and general conduct, and from 1833, they record next-of-kin, wives and children. Some also show medical details which can be very informative. Unfortunately, they only cover soldiers who were discharged on a pension, and those who died on active service or deserted are excluded.

Other series which provide essential information are the Regimental Pay Lists and Muster Rolls, which are available in bound volumes from 1732 to 1878 under WO 12 and from 1878 to 1898 under WO 16. The Regimental Description Books (WO 25) not only give a physical description, but they provide the soldier’s age, place of birth, trade and length of service for the period 1756-1900 – unfortunately, not all of the records have survived.

Soldiers who completed their service or who became invalids received a pension or institutional care in the Royal Hospitals at Chelsea and Kilmainham. They could be either out-pensioners (the Admission books are housed under WO 116 to 118), or in-pensioners (WO 23). In fact, we know from Alan’s list that a certain Henry Lindfield of the Staff Corps was pensioned in 1823 as an out-pensioner of the Chelsea Royal Hospital. Since Henry’s name has cropped up elsewhere, it is worth mentioning what we know about him already as I feel sure there must be other records of what appears to be a very interesting army career.

I first came across Henry Lindfield in the Brighton Census Returns for 1871. He is shown as Head of House, living at 8, Sussex Street with his son Henry and his daughter-in-law Mary. He is recorded as a widower, aged 82, born at Lewes and Pensioner of the Royal Staff Corps. If his age is correct, he would have been born in 1788 or 1789, which means that at the year of his discharge he would have been about 35, not 45, as recorded in the out-pensioners’ register. I can only believe that this is a mistake, since the chances of them not being one and the same person are remote. Another argument supports this assumption: from our parish register records, I feel we have a positive identification for our man, for in the baptism entries for the parish of Hamsey (near Lewes) for the year 1788, there is the following: November 9th Henry, son of John and Elizabeth Linfield. Quite by chance, I also have the marriage certificate for Henry’s son and daughter-in-law: it shows that Henry Lindfield, painter of 8 Sussex Street married Mary Blacklock Jenner in 1860 at the Parish Church of St. Nicholas. Henry’s father is entered as Henry Lindfield, bricklayer. Henry and Mary are buried at the Brighton Municipal Cemetery in Lewes Road; I saw their gravestone (Ref. NU63) which reads: “In Loving Memory of Henry Lindfield who died suddenly June 26th 1878, aged 43 years. Also of Mary Lindfield widow of the above, died January 12th 1893 aged 60 years.”

Although such information helps to identify the individual’s genealogical connections, it tells us little about the man himself. This is where military records can enable us to discover a considerable amount about our Army ancestors. Thanks to some recent research by Mary Ellmore at the PRO, we now know something about Henry which brings him to life as a human being. It describes an incident which took place during the Peninsular War:

Isla 29th September 1811 Before a Court Martial which assembled in the Isla on the 27th instant and of which Major Jones of the 1st Reg. of Guards was President, was tried HENRY LINFIELD Private 2nd class Royal Staffs Corps, confined by order of the Commanding Officer for leaving his post when on Duty, on the evening of the 24th instant.

The Court passed the following sentence: The Court having duly considered the evidence for and against the prisoner, are of opinion that he is guilty of the crime laid to his charge in breach of the Articles of War and so, therefore, sentence him to be reduced to the station and pay of a 3rd class man.

The Peninsular War was fought in Spain and Portugal between 1808 and 1814. The French seized Portugal in 1807 and in 1808 Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte, replaced Ferdinand VII as King of Spain. Spanish rebels attempted to fight back, gaining an initial victory at Bailen but against crack French troops could do no more than resist the sieges of Gerona and Zaragoza. British troops under the command of the Duke of Wellington eventually liberated the Peninsula. After their victory at Vittoria (1813) they invaded France, helping to force Napoleon’s abdication (1814).

Undoubtedly, assuming he knew about it, Henry would have applied for his Military General Service medal when it was issued in 1848. This medal was awarded to those who took part in engagements between 1793-1815, but because of the time lapse between the actual battles and the issue of the medal, only a relatively small number of survivors from each regiment lived to claim it. Some 25,000 medals were issued with an almost infinite variety of the 29 official clasps. Most of the clasps were issued during the Peninsular War of 1811-14 when Henry was serving. I wonder if his medal still exists somewhere? It would be fascinating to know which clasps he received, since they denote particular battles within the campaign. The medal itself is now fairly scarce, with only some 10% of those who participated living long enough to receive it – many others have probably been lost and destroyed over the years. However, although the medals may have disappeared, a considerable number of records exist of the people who received them. The medal rolls for campaign medals, 1793-1912, are in WO 100 (on microfilm): they are arranged by regiment. The campaign medals for the First World War are in WO 329. There are many sources for the award of gallantry medals, and it is advised that the PRO leaflet Records of Medals should be consulted.

Incidentally, if the 1881 Census is to be believed, Henry must have been something of a local celebrity in Brighton. For he is recorded as a “Waterloo Veteran”, aged 92 and born at Offham (the principal settlement in the parish of Hamsey, near Lewes). Since the famous battle had taken place some 66 years earlier, Henry was presumably among a very small number of surviving veterans. No doubt he had a number of colourful stories to tell about his experiences, if the record of his Court Martial is anything to go by. Many residents of Sussex Street were undoubtedly regaled by the old soldier’s tales, and the Census Enumerator was obviously suitably impressed to record his exceptional achievement. He would have been the proud holder of the first campaign medal issued to all ranks, the Waterloo Medal of 1815, which in itself is rather unusual since it portrays the head of the Prince Regent rather than the King. The reverse depicts the winged figure of Victory, and although 39,000 of these silver medals were issued very few of this number have survived. The recipient’s name was impressed around the edge and the medal suspended by an iron clip fixed tightly over the edge. Henry died on 6 February 1882 and was buried at the Brighton Municipal Cemetery.

The only other information we have about Henry Lindfield is his will and that of his wife Elizabeth, who died in 1864. These extracts are taken from the LONG publication Linfield and Lindfield Wills and Administrations 1858-1920 from the Calendar of Wills at Somerset House by Alan Lindfield (1995):

Elizabeth Lindfield #5443, proved 2 June 1865. Will of Elizabeth LINDFIELD (wife of Henry) late of 8 Sussex St, Brighton, died 10 October 1864 at 8 Sussex St, proved by oath of said Henry LINDFIELD of 8 Sussex St, bricklayer, sole executor, effects less than 200.

Henry Lindfield #5444, proved 23 February 1882. Will of Henry LINDFIELD late of 8 Sussex St, Brighton co Sussex who died 6 Feb 1882 at 8 Sussex St proved at Principal Registry 23 Feb 1882 by James Hasler Stapleton of 134 Sussex St, pork butcher and John Watts of 35 St Mary Magdalene St, Brighton, builder, the executors, 132.

Another important source for information about Army ancestors are the Army registers of births, marriages and deaths. The General Register Office has registers of Army births and marriages from 1761 to 1987, and of deaths from 1796 to 1987. The regimental registers of births and marriages run from 1761 to 1924, covering events in Britain (from 1761) and abroad (from c.1790). The Army Register Book (1881-1959) gives genealogical information of the families of those serving overseas. The PRO also has a small number of regimental registers of births, baptisms, marriages and burials. Some of these are annotated with information on discharge.

The Militia Lists, often found in local record offices, are another fascinating source for the family historian. The Militia was a part-time army raised when needed. The first series of Muster Rolls dates from 1522-1640; although they only provide names, such information is still very helpful during this period. In response to the threat of a French invasion, the Militia was re-established as a local defence force by an act of 1757, which set out the procedures for raising it. A form of conscription was used, whereby lists of all men aged 18-45 years were drawn up by the constables in each parish. A ballot was then held to decide who had to serve in the militia.The upper age limit was set at 50 years to begin with, then reduced to 45 in 1762. Many groups were exempted (eg the infirm, peers, clergymen, apprentices, seamen, soldiers, constables etc.), whilst the poor were also left out if only for the practical consideration that their dependants would become a burden on the poor rates. Although limited, these militia returns provide the best occupatonal census that is available before the Census Returns began in the 19th century. The PRO also holds a number of important Militia Records; those under WO 68, for example, covering the period 1759-1925, include records of a number of British militia regiments, consisting of enrolment books, description books, pay lists, returns of officers’ services, casualty books, regimental histories etc., and also registers of marriages, births and baptisms.

In our records, we know of at least two Lin(d)fields who served in the Militia. William Linfield, who married Ruth Roberson at St Bartholemew Hyde, Winchester on 12 August 1781 is shown in the parish registers as being a member of the Sussex Militia. He was possibly the eldest son of William Linfield and Sarah Penfold who were married at Nuthurst on 20 January 1756. William was baptised in the parish church on 3 November 1756, making him 25 in 1781. Interestingly enough, it was William’s younger brother Samuel Linfield (1770-1829) who was apprehended for the murder of Harry Naldrett at Monks Gate on 6 October 1810(Ref. 2). This conveniently leads us to the identity of the other Lin(d)field who served in the Militia: by a strange coincidence, whilst Samuel was being held in detention at the Petworth House of Correction, a certain William Lindfield was brought to the gaol on June 1 1811. His misdemeanour: desertion from the West Regiment Local Militia, for which offence he was committed “for the space of 6 months unless he pays a penalty of 20.” The prison accounts record that James Mannings was paid 15 shillings (the rate being one shilling per mile) for bringing him to Petworth. As to the possible identity of the second William, I have a horrible feeling he may well have been Samuel’s nephew (his brother James had a son, William baptised at Horsham on 19 April 1789, about whom we know absolutely nothing). I would love to know what words may have passed between them, in what must have been a peculiarly awkward situation!

What sort of things were these Militia regiments expected to do? Although they never saw active service, they nevertheless carried out a number of important and onerous duties which relieved the regular soldiers. A recent article by Richard Burgess(Ref. 3) describes some typical activities which were documented by Edward Gibbon (1737-94), when he served in the south battalion of the Hampshire Militia (1758-62). During this time, they guarded some 3200 French prisoners in Portchester Castle in “ill-built huts in a damp and dreary situation” resulting in losses from fevers and smallpox. Then they made a long march to Cranbrook where they “were sent to guard 1800 French prisoners at Sissinghurst (Castle). The inconceivable dirtiness of the season, the country and the spot aggravated the hardships of a duty too heavy for our numbers.” On 27 December 1760, they were moved to Dover where “our dull leisure was enlivened by the society of the 14th Regiment in the Castle and some sea parties in the Spring. We exercised each morning in sight of the French and recovered unity and discipline.” Undoubtedly, it was during these long periods of excruciating boredom that the temptation to desert would have been greatest.

The final series of records I would like to look at are those relating to the First World War. As I said at the beginning of this article, several Lin(d)fields were killed during this horrific conflict; many others suffer
d for the rest of their lives from the injuries and mental scars of what was supposedly the “war to end all wars.” Our President, Eric Linfield, lost his uncle Fred near Arras in 1917 and in a recent article he writes of the very moving experience of visiting his grave for the first time(Ref. 4). My father lost his uncle Harold, a private in the 2nd Royal Sussex Regiment, at Richebourg L’ Avouļæ½in 1915. He was 21. Some families had to face the tragic consequences of more than one death in the family: a dear old lady I used to go and visit in Kent, Mabel Kingsnorth (1893-1991), daughter of Ephraim (1855-1920) and Mary Ann Linfield of Groombridge, told me once how she had lost two brothers during the Great War, the eldest and the youngest. Both appear on Alan’s list: Private George Frank Linfield, of the Royal West Kent Regiment, was killed on 16 November 1916, aged 20, on the Somme. Her eldest brother, Private Ephraim John William Linfield, was killed in action on 4 October 1917 in Belgium. He was 37.

Initially, I would like to say something about the records of the Great War; and secondly, to look at some of the more personal items which may have survived, thereby provide a unique record of the individual to whom they relate. Unfortunately, a high proportion (some 60%) of the records of soldiers serving between 1914 and 1920 were destroyed during the Blitz. Surviving records have, until recently, been in the care of the Ministry of Defence and are gradually being transferred to the PRO over the course of the next few years The remaining ‘burnt documents’ (WO 363) are currently being microfilmed, with the aid of a Lottery grant, but there are an estimated one and a half miles to film! To add to the complications, many of these documents have been badly damaged by the effects of fire and water. Still, the aim is to have the filming project completed by the end of 2001. In the meantime, the Ministry of Defence will be happy to do paid searches for people wishing to trace individual soldiers.

What can these surviving records tell us? The ‘unburnt documents’- contained on some 4000 microfilm reels – are available in the Microfilm Reading Room at the PRO (WO 364). These consist of duplicates held by the Ministry of Pensions, and although there is a certain amount of overlap between the two series, they add another 8-10% to the surviving records. The films are organised alphabetically in surname order, and consist of a collection of forms which were completed by army clerks for a variety of reasons. Unfortunately, there is little relating to an individual’s war service – such information may be found in the war diaries for the battalion in which he served. Some of the most common forms are:

  • Attestation forms: giving details such as regimental number, unit and rank, date and place of birth, address, occupation, description, next of kin, marriage details etc;
  • Medical history: physical condition at the time of enlistment; admissions, discharges and medical treatment in hospital; recent vaccinations and dental treatment etc;
  • Casualty Form – Active Service: records promotions, reductions, transfers, casualties etc;
  • Statement as to Disability: completed by soldier on demobilization – includes age, date, place of recruitment and medical condition when first joined, cause for discharge and intended address after discharge;
  • Medical report on a Soldier Boarded prior to Discharge or Transfer… to the Reserve and Medical Report on an Invalid: includes judgment of the medical board prior to discharge, and more about medical history;
  • Regimental Conduct Sheet: describes offences resulting in disciplinary action, the nature of the offence and verdict; and
  • Proceedings on Discharge: records date and place of discharge, the reason why, a physical description, and a brief summary of a man’s character.

Other sources at the PRO include War diaries, which are one of the most important sources of information for the family historian (found in WO 95). Although the names of individual soldiers are rarely mentioned, the war diaries record the day-to-day activities of a particular unit such as a battalion or a military hospital. They vary enormously in the value of their content, which depended largely on the enthusiasm of the officers who maintained them. A selection of medical records relating to men admitted to casualty clearing stations or hospitals can be found in MH 106, but most of these documents were destroyed years ago. There are also a number of published lists of names, such as ‘Soldiers died in the Great War’ which was reprinted in 1989, and ‘Soldiers killed on the First Day of the Somme’ (1977). ‘A National Roll of the Great War, 1914-1918’ lists both men who survived as well as the fallen.

During the course of 1998, the Ministry of Defence are due to complete the transfer of Officers’ Records to the PRO. It is easy to check whether an ancestor was an officer by looking at the frequently published Army Lists, which can be found in the Research Enquiries Room. The Monthly Army Lists contain lists of officers by regiment, promotions, appointments and deaths with date and reason. The Quarterly Army Lists include lists of regular army officers by rank in seniority order, with dates of promotion and gallantry medals. There are also several books listing the service of officers: for instance, there is a separate volume (no. 18) of ‘Soldiers died in the Great War’ for officers(Ref. 5). Brief biographies can be found in Marquis de Ruvigny, ‘The Roll of Honour: a biographical record of members of His Majesty’s Naval and Military Forces who fell in the Great War’ (2 vols, reprinted 1986), and in ‘A List of Commissioned Medical Officers of the Army, 1660-1960’ (2 vols., 1925, 1968). There are also a number of more specific works which provide biographical details, such as RW Walker’s ‘To what end did they die: Officers who died at Gallipoli’ (1980).

Women also played an important part in the First World War, especially by taking on many of the clerical and support roles in the armed forces – thereby freeing men to go to the front. Their nursing skills were particularly appreciated, but sadly there are few surviving records. The most useful PRO records are the rolls (on microfiche) of the Women’s Service Medal: it lists all the women who were entitled to the Victory Medal, British War Medal, and the 1914 or 1914-15 Stars. Unfortunately, no service records for the Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service are known to survive.

An under-used but extremely valuable resource for the family historian is newspapers. The main problem with them, however, is that few are indexed so it can be a very time-consuming endeavour searching through issue after issue to find information. The problem is exacerbated when the only access to them is usually through microfilm, often badly scratched and terrible for the eyes. Nevertheless, newspapers cannot be ignored and although they were heavily censored during the First World War, they are still very useful. The most important papers for the researcher are the local ones, and copies can often be found in record offices and local reference libraries. An almost complete set of newspapers is held at the British Newspaper Library, Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HE. In the local papers, casualty lists were published and there were often stories about local war heroes. They often published letters which local men had sent home from France, describing their life at the front.

So far we have looked at the public records available to the researcher who is trying to discover something about his or her First World War ancestor. But what about the more personal items which may have survived, such as letters or postcards, medals or photographs? Where they survive, these momentoes should be treasured since they often provide the most vivid impression of their owner. Particularly poignant are the letters or cards from a son or brother who was never to return. Peggy Champ once showed me two postcards which were sent by her uncle Harold to his mother at the very beginning of the war. Both are addressed to “Mrs AG Linfield, The Laurels, Chesswood Road, Worthing, Sussex,” and the messages are moving not only because of their very simplicity but they convey nothing of the horrors awaiting Harold and his comrades once they reached France. The first card is dated 4/11/14 and postmarked from Lydd; it reads: “Dear Mother, Just a card to let you know we are going on well. Many thanks for the fruit. I will write you when I get back to Dover. Go back Sunday next. Can you see me on the card? It was taken as we came into Lydd. Much love Harold.” The photograph epitomizes the carefree and light hearted attitude common to those who volunteered at the beginning of the war, since they are all smiling enthusiastically at the camera. It was all a big adventure, and undoubtedly they all expected to be home by Christmas! The other card is dated 12/11/14 and postmarked from Dover; it reads: “Dear Mother, Just a card to let you know we have got the parcel, also Granie’s, it was at Dover when we got back. Am writing to her tonight. This P.C. is yours, hope you got the other. Many thanks for parcel. We have two suits now. Ever your’s Harold. P.S. We know about the water!” Unfortunately, Harold was killed in action on May 9th 1915 and is buried at Rue-Petillon.

When his parents celebrated their Golden Wedding anniversary on January 1st 1933, one of the gifts they received from their children was an album of photographs celebrating fifty years of marriage. Their mother Edith subsequently captioned many of the photos; she also wrote the following account of her children’s service during the war, which is not without interest:

1914-1918 The Great War

“The boys left home at the call of duty on Sept. 4th 1914. They all joined Kitchener’s Army as Privates. Harold and Wilfred were in the Royal Sussex Regiment “2 Battalion” and were sent to Dover for training. They left Dover for the Front on Jan. 3rd 1915. Wilfred got trench feet, and was sent to hospital at the Base, there to England later. While in England he (gained) his Commission, after that he was sent out to India in charge of the Royal Buffs Regiment, where he stayed four years, and while there he was made Captain.

Harold was killed in action on May 9th 1915 in the Big Push round “Hill 60.” Will joined the Royal Lancers Cavalier Regiment and (was) sent to Tidworth for training, and after being in France for some time he was sent home to take his Commission, which he took, then went back to France and was commissioned to take the Black Watch Regiment to India. He came back to France where he had a dreadful time, all the other officers in his regiment being killed, he had to take command, not an easy job.

Gordon was joined up to the Royal Buffs Regiment and trained in Kent, then sent out to Egypt where he was badly wounded. Alice was already a fully trained nurse, being one of Queen Alexandra’s nurses and was sent out to Salonika and was Charge Sister over 50 nurses.

Arthur was not able to join up as he had to stay and keep things going for the others when they came back. It was hard work as all our men had gone, he also was made a Special Constable in the town. Mary acted as Instructor to the many women who volunteered to take the place of the nursery men who had joined up.”

I feel sure my grandfather, Arthur, always regretted not being able to play his full part in the conflict which claimed so many lives of his generation. His unstinting work for Gifford House, the home for disabled ex-servicemen (which was moved to Worthing in 1933), gave him enormous satisfaction and provided him with the means to help many people who had suffered from the horrors of the two world wars. As Chairman of Worthing Rotary Club in 1933, he played a key role in helping to integrate and establish the Home in Worthing. He was appointed Chairman in 1945, and remained in post for the next 29 years – until he died on April 14th 1974. A recently published book, ‘The Queen Alexandra Hospital Home’ by David Farrant (Phillimore 1997), tells the story of this remarkable institution since its foundation at Roehampton in 1919.

Of course, the tragedy of the First World War extended far beyond the thousands upon thousands of people who were killed during the conflict. Thousands of others were mentally scarred for life, and never recovered from the appalling personal experiences they encountered. “Shell Shock” was a fairly common occurrence, but received no sympathetic recognition from the authorities. Many men were executed by firing squad for “cowardice in the face of the enemy” when, in fact, they were seriously ill from their experiences in battle. Many returned to England, unable to adjust to a normal life, their careers and future prospects completely destroyed. My grandfather’s cousin, Harry Linfield (1895-1975), was training to be a lawyer before the war but he unfortunately never recovered from the horrifying experience of being buried alive for several days after being blown up in France. He was incapable of continuing with his intended career, and for the rest of his life he was terrified by loud noises, darkness and enclosed spaces.

I hope this article has helped to reveal the wealth of records available to the family historian who is hoping to discover more about military ancestors. I have written more about the First World War than any other period, but it is, perhaps, the most promising start for most people since it affected almost every family in the land. Since it relates to the more recent past, it is also much more likely that people will know about an ancestor or relative who may have participated in this conflict. At the risk of going slightly off course, I have introduced some Lin(d)field family history into this article, with the intention of illustrating the sort of information that is waiting to be found. Finally, I hope I may have inspired some of you with military ancestors to go and do some research; we look forward to the results!


A. Bevan and A. Duncan, Tracing Your Ancestors in the Public Record Office (HMSO, 4th edition, 1990).

S. Fowler, “A Call to Arms: Soldiers’ Documents of the Great War,” Sussex Family Historian Vol. 12 No. 4 (December 1996) p. 138.

R. Burgess, “About the Militia,” Sussex Family Historian Vol. 11 No. 7 (September 1995) p. 268.

W. Spencer, Records of the Militia &amp Volunteer Forces 1757-1945 (PRO, 1997).

D. Hey, The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (BCA, 1996).

S. Fowler, W. Spencer &amp S. Tamblin, Army Service Records of the First World War (PRO, 1996).

The Medal Year Book 1993 Edition (Token Publishing Ltd.)


1. Longshot Vol. 5 No.2 and Vol. 6 No. 1

2. Longshot Vol 3 No 2, December 1994

3. Sussex Family Historian, September 1995

4. Longshot Vol 3 No 2, December 1994

5. A copy of this document is in the LONG library


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