It Could Be You!

In the days before the National Lottery and the football pools, people no doubt used to dream of inheriting a fortune from some long lost relative. Tracing the heirs of deceased clients is a task which still falls to solicitors and their clerks, and which I have always assumed must explain the number of young men and women who used to appear in the search rooms at St Catherine’s House talking on their cellular telephones while frantically searching the births, marriages and deaths. Naturally I hoped that I was the lucky relative they were searching for!

I was intrigued therefore, to receive from the Family Origin Name Survey, several entries from publications which list heirs to unclaimed estates, and searches for next-of-kin. The first was published in 1878 and lists two Lindfield entries, Henry Lindfield, and Spencer Lindfield. As to Henry, we cannot tell which Henry is referred to, though it may be that a search of the original documents might help. The Index seems to have been compiled from Chambers Index to Next of Kin. Spencer Lindfield is much easier to identify, particularly as she also appears in another of the FONS references as Mrs S Lindfield of Walworth. She died in 1857 and I recounted her story in a previous article (Crime and Punishment LONGSHOT Vol 4 no 2). It would be interesting to know how much money she left and whether it represented the proceeds of the crimes with which she was charged!

A Lindfield Coat of Arms

One of the questions often asked of family historians is whether their family has a coat of arms. Until recently, I had to say that we had found no evidence of any grant of arms to anyone bearing one of the name variants we are researching. Until that is, I had a surprise visit from Ernest William Lindfield of Shearwater, Tasmania, who was in England on holiday. Ernest left with me a photograph of the coat of arms, or more strictly, the Armorial Bearings, which had recently been granted to him in recognition of his public service.

Our printing process cannot really do justice to the colour photograph, but I have copied out the wording of the Warrant, which readers may find of interest. There are plenty of good books around on heraldry which will provide a translation of the rather arcane terminology!



His Grace’s Warrant (Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England) and by virtue of the Letters Patent of My Office granted to Me by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty do by these Presents grant and assign unto the said ERNEST WILLIAM LINDFIELD the Arms following that is to say:- Quarterly Azure and Or in the first and fourth quarters a Martlet wings displayed and addorsed in the second and third a Mullet all counterchanged on a Pale Ermine a Caduceus Gold And for the Crest upon a Helm with a Wreath Argent Or and Azure A Tasmanian Tiger rampant holding in the sinister paw a pair of Scales Or and in the dexter a Cutlass proper Mantled Azure doubled Party Or and Argent And I further grant and assign the following Device or Badge that is to say: Upon a Aboriginal Spear and a Didgeridoo in saltire proper an Eagle displayed Or all within a wreath of Greater Bird of Paradise Tail Feathers proper as the same are in the margin hereof more plainly depicted to be borne and used forever hereafter by the said ERNEST WILLIAM LINDFIELD and by his descendants with their due and proper differences and according to the Laws of Arms.

Our congratulations to Ernest on achieving this honour, and on being, as far as we know, the first Lindfield to be entitled to a coat of arms.

The Avery and Beard Connections

Reading a Will made some 300 years ago, is rather like having a letter from a friend one has not seen for a very long time. How interesting are the items mentioned and those who were to receive them!

ANN BEARD, the daughter of JOHN BEARD of Woodmancote, was baptised there in 1613. She was married at Woodmancote on the 30th September 1641 to a certain JOHN LINDFIELD. And now, at the age of 62 – and from the Land Tax Records we know her to be a widow – she is making her Will. She may be already ill and in need of nursing, for the Will is witnessed by two women, one is ELIZABETH DOVE and the other is SUSAN AVERY, the eldest daughter of NATHANIEL AND SUSAN AVERY of Knowl’s Tooth, a very old farm house still standing in Langton Lane, Hurstpierpoint.

From the Will it appears that Ann’s family consisted of three daughters and a son. The eldest daughter Ann, is married to William Stone of The Nunnery, Rusper. Mary, who may later have married John Tilley, and Sarah, also there is a son, John Lindfield. This son was not the eldest child, therefore would have been contemporary in age with Susan Avery. It does seem likely that he was the John Lindfield whom Sarah Avery married – perhaps after the death of his mother?

Ann, who married William Stone, had a daughter Elizabeth, who became Mrs. Thomas Marchant of Little Park Farm, Hurstpierpoint. Thomas Marchant wrote an amusing and informative Diary, which is reproduced in the Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol. 25. It throws much light on the goings and comings of these local families and the name Lindfield is frequently mentioned.

But, to return to Susan Avery now, the wife of John Lindfield, after the birth of their son John Lindfield in 1676, Susan became a widow and Letters of Administration were granted to her on January 28th 1681/2. In 1680, on 27th August, is recorded the burial ofone John Lindfield at Hurstpierpoint. In 1684, on August 27th Susan married at All Saint’s, Lewes, Samuel Savage of Biggs, Cuckfield.

Susan’s mother, Susan Avery, refers in her Will dated 1689, to “the five children of Samuel Savage“. Whether they are all Susan’s or whether Samuel had been married before, I do not know. Susan Savage, in her own Will in 1718, refers only to one Sarah, who was baptised at Hurstpierpoint on 2,4th September 1686 and who married on February 1 Oth 1711 to John Stapley of Hickstead Place – thereby linking in again yet another notable family. John Stapley also kept a Diary and in it he mentions many points of interest which happened among our Ancestors in this locality.


The Royal Navy Patrol Service

The August 1996 journal of the Group contained an article under the heading Full Circle that mentioned the author’s father’s and uncle’s service in the Royal Navy.

Both served on minesweepers and would have been attached to the Royal Naval Patrol Service, a new division of the R.N. with their central depot in Lowestoft in a place calle dthe Sparrow’s Nest. This had the official title of HMS Europa andoperated from the beginning of the war until 1946 when it was closed down.

Lieutenant F R Linfield is named on the memorial at Lowestoft to commemorate sailors of the RNPS lost at sea.. This memorial which is 50 feet high, surmounted by a bronze galleon, rises from a 40 foot diameter base fitted with 17 bronze panels bearing the names of 2,385 sailors lost at sea.

My own service commenced in 1944 as a Royal Naval rating attached to Chatham depot, but within a month I was transferred to Lowestoft and became a Royal Naval Patrol Service sailor. My first draft in this division was to a small minesweeper out of Grimsby, deployed in keeping open charted shipping lanes in the North Sea. At the end of the war in Europe, I was posted abroad and served for two years in the Pacific and Indian fleets before being demobbed in 1947.

I joined the Royal Naval Patrol Service Association last year and have taken part in the last two annual parades, service and wreath laying at Lowestoft. The parade of about 1000 ex-RNPS personnel is through Lowestoft, terminating at the memorial for the service and then to the old parade ground for the final service – a very proud and moving occasion.

It was at the service that I noticed Lieut F R Linfield’s name, and the secretary of the association answered my enquiry with the following details:

LINFIELD, FREDERICK ROY, Lieut. R.N.R. Son of Frederick William and Mary. Husband of Alice Cameron Minter Linfield of Durban, Natal, South Africa. Lost on HMS Sotra, 29th January, 1942, aged 31. The Sotra was a whaler, 313 tons, built 1925, hired as a minesweeper in September 1939. It was sunk by a German submarine U431 off Bardia (Bariyah), North Africa.

In my four years service in the RN the only Lin(d)field I met was my cousin Jack Lindfield who served on the carrier Ark Royal and then on the Royal Fleet auxiliaries throughout the war after his pre-war training at King Alfred, Hove. It would be interesting to hear from any other Lin(d)fields who were associated with the Royal Navy.

The 1881 Census in Sussex

As some readers will be aware, a major project was recently undertaken by the Church of Latter Day Saints to index and publish the 1881 census returns for the United Kingdom. This has produced an extremely useful resource for family historians, in that we now have a complete, and comprehensively indexed, set of data for that year. In fact the entries are indexed in a four ways, by surname, by birthplace, by census place and finally as enumerated.

As a formally constituted family history society, the Lin(d)field One Name Group is allowed to purchase copies of the microfiche index and we have now bought the set for Sussex. As luck would have it, the other counties which contain significant numbers of Lin(d)fields at that time, are among the larger counties in terms of population and are therefore much more expensive sets of fiche. We will collect the data from those in due course using copies at local and national archives. I have made a start on that process by obtaining copies of the relevant pages from the surname indexes for Kent, Middlesex and Lancashire.

To return to the Sussex data, I have now entered all of the surname index information into a computer spreadsheet, which allows us to sort the entries automatically and to print them out in various formats as required. The total number in Sussex is 381, made up of 248 of the Lindfield spelling and 133 shown as Linfield. Perhaps surprisingly, there are no Linkfield, Lingfield, Linville or similar names.

For those members who are interested in such things, the data is held in an Excel spreadsheet, and I am happy to make a copy on disc for anyone who wants one for research purposes. There is clearly a lot of scope for analysing the information, in terms of the wealth of demographic data it contains. It would be fascinating, for example, to examine the location, occupations, family sizes and other aspects, as they relate to our family names.

Another related project has been started by Geoff Riggs of the Guild of One Name Studies who is collating statistics for the number of occurrences of various surnames in the 1881 census year. When we have completed our search of the 1881 entries, we will be sending the county totals to Geoff for entry into his database. In return, we will receive a map showing the distribution around the country.

When all the data has been collected and entered into the spreadsheet, we hope to publish it in book form, as well as making it available as a computer based resource.

Reflections from the President

In my early researches about the geographical and cultural origins of the Linfields, knowing that we were probably associated with the growing of flax, I wrote to the Linfield Football and Athletic Club, of Windsor Park, Donegall Avenue, Belfast, N. Ireland enquiring if there were any family connections. No link was established. However, since then Linfield Athletic have published ‘LINFIELD- 100 YEARS’ by Malcolm Brodie (1985) which describes its first hundred years since its foundation in March 1886. The following extracts are of interest and show that there are a number of associations with our ancient family name:

“There is no other football club in Ireland quite like Linfield. They are loved and hated. Loved by thousands of fans – some of whom have had their ashes scattered at Windsor Park while others were buried in their Linfield regalia. Hated down the years by the opposition for an implacable enmity, a fierce and relentless sporting rivalry has always existed between Linfield and all other teams.

The tradition of Linfield hits you the moment you step through the turnstiles or into the dressing and boardrooms at Windsor. They are a big club who never permit themselves to be parochial in outlook although they jealously guard their rights. Dignity and dedication are two essentials to being a Linfield player or official.”

“It is the proud boast of many Linfield fans that theirs is the bluest of the blue. It is a club with a distinctly Protestant following but, in answer to often-repeated criticism that they don’t play Roman Catholics, club officials point out there is nothing in the rules to prevent this. In fact, many of the distinguished players in the past have been Roman Catholics . . .”

“Everyone wants to triumph over the Blues. “I don’t care who wins so long as Linfield are beaten”, is a comment frequently heard. That has not happened too often for a search of the records reveals few seasons in which Linfield didn’t win a trophy nor have they ever applied for re-election to the Irish League. Supporters look upon success as commonplace and that is the way it has been down the years . . .”

“Everyone owes a supreme allegiance to Linfield but, through the club, they have helped by positive thinking to ensure Northern Ireland football marches on. Another century approaches and no doubt during it the name of Linfield will be in the forefront as it has been since that day in 1886 when the club was conceived in a linen mill . . .”

It was in the latter part of 1885 “that Bob McClurg, an employee in the Linfield mill of the Ulster Spinning Company, led a deputation . . . to ask directors permission to form a team and to use the ground at the back of the mill called “The Meadow”. This was granted and the company even offered the facilities of the dining hall where they had first discussed the prospects of setting up the club.”

“So in March 1886, the club, known as Linfield Athletic, was officially founded; it was decided to limit team membership to employees but it soon became evident that if success was to be attained, the doors had to be opened to all-comers. Therefore six outsiders were welcomed simply because they strengthened the side . . .”

“Throughout the summer of 1886 players trained assidiously, even during lunchbreaks. All wanted to play for Linfield, to be founder members. In the opening match against Distillery . . . Linfield won 6-5 . . . Distillery, already well established, had a highly competent side led by Matthew Wilson who was amazed at the performance of Linfield, nicknamed by the workers as ‘The Sprinters’. “You staggered us . . . we expected to beat a junior side”, he told committee members. That victory established the name of Linfield . .”

During the last few months, I have begun research into the life of George Hayler Linfield who left the SullingtonStorringtonWashington area in the early 1840s and worked for many years as a gardener at Brenchley, near Paddock Wood in Kent. He was one of the grandsons of Peter Linfield, the butcher of Storrington (see Longshot, Vol 2 No 1, May 1993 p. 10). I visited Brenchley for the first time earlier this year and I hope to go again in the Autumn. It’s a beautiful little village with a splendid view of the surrounding countryside from Castle Hill. The following is taken from our database and gives his family history in outline:

GEORGE HAYLER LINFIELD born abt. 1816, Sullington, occupation Gardener, married before 1844 in Brenchley, Kent, Anne born abt. 1812 Brenchley, Kent, living 1891, Castle Hill, Brenchley. George died 1892 (reg.Tonbridge). Anne shown in CR91 as aged 79, bn. Brenchley.


Bertha Hayler Linfield, b. 1844.
Elizabeth Ann Linfield, b. 1846. Occupation: School Matron in CR 1891.
Emma Josephine Linfield, b. 1848. Occupation: Cook domestic, living 1891 at Castle Hill, Brenchley.

Bertha married (i) Thomas Whibley, 21 Nov 1868 at Brenchley (ii) —– Hannaford, before 1920.

Database outlines such as the above give the basic information for my current research. My daughter, Janet Anderson (nee Linfield) lives at Larkfield, Kent about 10 miles from Brenchley.

Finally, a personal memory of my early respect for William Henry Borrer, the famous botanist, of Barrow Hill, Henfield. My family have always been great tree lovers and we valued the grandeur of the cedar trees planted in the little plantation on the left at the top of Barrow Hill. On the flint wall the Borrer family had placed a plaque saying the trees were planted with seed from Lebanon in 1843. I passed these trees every school day for the three years that I attended Henfield Boys (CE) Elementary School, 1928-31 before I began my grammar school education as a rural scholarship boy at Steyning, and often collected pine cones there. I was, of course, completely unaware then of the Borrer/Lindfield connection: William Borrer’s mother was Mary Lindfield (1758-1813), daughter and heir to Nathaniel Lindfield, owner of Pickwell in Cuckfield, which she brought by marriage in 1780 to William Borrer of Pakyns Manor in Hurstpierpoint. William Borrer, botanist, was born on June 13 1781. He died on January 10 1862. The following extract comes from The Story of Henfield by Henry de Candole, Vicar of Henfield (Cambridges, Hove, 1947):

On the upper slope of Barrow Hill, a “new mansion was built by his father for William Borrer the third, a great name in the Henfield of the 19th century. The Borrer family owned, and still own, Pakyns Manor in Hurstpierpoint bought by William Borrer the first in 1783. His son, William Borrer II, was High Sheriff of the county, raised a troop of Horse for defence against Napoleon, and is described as having proved “a very successful caterer for the needs of the crowds of men and horses assembled in Sussex” at the time of the Napoleonic scare. He already had connections with Henfield, and his son, William Borrer III, was born and baptised here in 1781 and showed his devotion to the place during a long life as a generous benefactor to the Church, Schools and village, and an originator of many schemes for their welfare. But his fame was more than local, for he was one of the leading botanists of his time, and a Fellow of the Royal Society. Tradition tells of a letter sent to him, and safely delivered, as “that illustrious man Wm. Borrer, England.” In particular, he was an authority on the plants of his own county and parish as the frequency of allusions to Henfield in the recent ‘Sussex Flora’ by Wolley-Dod (1937) amply testifies. “As soon as he had a home of his own,” we are told, “he betook himself to gardening, and amassed one of the best collections of plants ever grown in the English climate.” The garden at Barrow Hill was indeed famous; in 1860 his gardener made a list of over 6600 plants, the most remarkable of which were given at his death to Kew Gardens. Others of his family shared his interests, and are responsible for the red oaks, and for the cedars brought from Lebanon in 1843 and flourishing opposite Spring Hills. His eldest son William Borrer IV of Cowfold became an authority on ornithology and wrote ‘The Birds of Sussex’, in which may be found his startling record of having once seen no less than 14 golden orioles on a single bush on Henfield Common. But the glories of Barrow Hill are past; the house has been deserted since the death of Borrer’s granddaughter, and the once lovely garden is now, alas! a tangled wilderness.”

The last connection of the Lindfields with the Borrers was in the last century when Mr Lindfield Borrer still lived at Barrow Hill.

Edmund Linfield of Storrington, Clockmaker

I was most interested to read in Sussex Life of the recent purchase by the Horsham Museum Society of a long case clock which was made by Edmund Linfield of Storrington. The article, which I saw in the June issue, also states that “very little” is known about Edmund. It continues: “He may have been a journeyman clock maker visiting Storrington for a year or so, making one or two clocks for local families. Or he may have lived in the town and worked at other trades. These and other questions will be answered after the Museum staff and volunteers have researched this interesting and elusive clock maker.” Since Eric, Alan and myself are all members of the Horsham Museum Society, I was somewhat surprised that nobody from the organisaton had bothered to contact us, so I sent them a letter giving details of all the information we presently have about this “elusive” clockmaker. I have been intending for some time to write an article about Edmund, so what follows is based upon the information I sent them.

Edmund was baptised at Thakeham Church on 14 October 1722, the younger son of William and Jane Linfield. William was a husbandman in the parish and married Jane Hooker at Fittleworth on 17 June 1711. Baptised at Itchingfield in 1683, William was the eldest child of George Linfield and Elizabeth Stringer of Shipley, who were married on 15 May 1681. Although I have not yet found their marriage entry in any of the local parish registers, Edmund married Mary Richardson in about 1750. The earliest Storrington reference to Edmund takes place on 8 November 1753 with the christening of his daughter Ann. In the parish register he is referred to as a “clocksmith” so his business was presumably established in the village at around this time. Undoubtedly, this must have been his main occupation although he would have worked at other trades related to his craft. He probably made all his clocks to order, whilst the cases would have been made by a local carpenter to the specific requirements of the customer. All his children by Mary were christened in Storrington, namely Ann (1753), Elizabeth (1757), James (1759), Sarah (1761), Richard (1763) and Catherine (1766).

Extracts from the Thakeham Manor Court Book (add. Ms. 2298) for 1755 refer to a cottage with acre of land at South Common in Thakeham. This property was eventually to revert to “Mary the wife of Edmund Linfield (clockmaker)” daughter of Richard Richardson, after “the deaths of Samuel Richardson & the said Richard Richardson the father.

My own research into the life of Edmund Linfield was originally motivated after I first saw one of his clocks, which belongs to a cousin. I have also subsequently corresponded with a lady who has another, quite different, example of his workmanship and I have heard of at least one other clock in Sussex. Although I have not seen the clock at Horsham Museum, I shall describe the two clocks I am familiar with since it will be interesting later to see how they compare. I believe the basic product of the Sussex maker was the thirty-hour longcase clock, earlier made with a single hand but after the mid 18th century with two hands. My cousin’s clock has a brass face, with a chapter ring which shows Roman numerals for each hour and a minute band marked at every fifth unit (see illustration and front cover). The word “LINFIELD” is engaved in plain capital letters; beneath, more artistically executed, is a flowery “STORRINGTON”. The minute band is placed around the outer edge of the dial. This clock is therefore a classic example of a two handed 30 hour longcase clock. There is also a clue to the year of its manufacture: the year 1761 is pencilled inside the door of the case. I would imagine that it may be engraved on the workings, possibly with Edmund’s signature, and that whoever pencilled in the date may have found it whilst carrying out renovation work. Its year of manufacture, 1761, was at a time when the majority of 30 hour clocks were two handed; whereas, twenty years earlier, most would have been single handers.

London was the main centre of clockmaking until the mid-18th century, and most of the clocks produced there were 8 day clocks. Interestingly, the 30 hour and 8 day clocks were available from the same time, although the 8 day types were the most popular. The dial consisted of several parts – the dial sheet, corner-pieces or spandrels- attached by a screw – and a main chapter ring carrying the numbers. The most obvious difference between the 30 hour and 8 day clocks is the presence of two winding holes on the latter, since 30 hour clocks do not wind with a key. This is not to deny, of course, that there are exceptions: some people liked to give the impression that they possessed an 8 day clock by positioning “dummy” winding holes on the dial of their 30 hour clock. They also provided a decorative effect to improve the appearance of an over-plain centre, whilst at the same time following the fashion of the capital.

The numbers or chapter ring was a separately cast brass disc onto which the hours and minutes were engraved. It was usually silvered over to enhance the appearance of the numbers, but my cousin’s clock shows no sign of silvering as, in most cases, it has been polished away over the centuries. It is, however, a legitimate restoration technique to resilver the dial by using a paste of silver chloride.

The other Edmund Linfield clock I have come across has some interesting differences. Unfortunately, I have not actually seen it, but I do have a photograph of the clock face as well as some descriptive information from my correspondent. It has a brass dial with the engaved words “LINFIELD, STORRINGTON” in two scrolls. Although the clock has two hands, there are no minutes marked at all, but simply Roman hour numerals, and between them only four spaces instead of five on the inner chapter ring edge. This is very interesting since it suggests that the clock was originally single-handed; the four spaces represented quarter-hour units, to provide clarity of time to the nearest quarter-hour. However, there are also two winding holes in the clock face, which complicates matters somewhat since it would appear to be an 8 day clock – which, according to clock expert Brian Loomes, were always made with two hands! Some single handed 8 day clocks do exist, but they are apparently very rare indeed. What it suggests, of course, is that this particular clock was originally a single handed 30 hour clock which was later fitted with an 8 day movement and an extra hand. There are other reasons for supporting this view: for instance, most 8 day clocks also had a seconds dial, whilst 30 hour clocks did not. This clock has no seconds dial.

Such alterations were probably quite common, and were usually carried out when excessive wear had become a problem. In the case of 30 hour clocks, it was understandably preferable to replace the movement completely and, for the sake of convenience, with an 8 day movement. But it also meant cutting winding holes in the face of the clock, which may have rough edges and no ringing like many original brass dial 8 day clocks. My correspondent also indicated that she thought the case was not the original; the case on my cousin’s clock is very plain and was probably known as a “cottage clock”, judging by its simple oak case which would have been made to order by a local carpenter. It was therefore destined for a more modest household than the much more elaborate and expensive mahogany cases favoured by the rich.

The following family tree should help to clarify what we already know about Edmund. He was born in 1722, and died at Storrington in 1799 at the age of 77. His first wife, Mary Richardson, by whom he had six children, died in 1772. Two years later he married his second wife, Sarah Boniface at West Grinstead on June 25 1774, by whom he had a son, Richard, baptised in 1779.

In a previous article in Longshot (Vol 2 No 1, May 1993), I wrote about the prosperous butcher, Peter Linfield of Storrington, who moved to the village from West Chiltington in 1779 and lived there until his death in 1791. In his inventory, he is shown as owning two grandfather clocks, and it is tempting to imagine that he bought them from his distant kinsman of Storrington, Edmund. As an interesting observation, although they both had businesses in the same village, their fortunes ran in opposite directions: whilst Peter thrived, and his business grew from strength to strength, Edmund’s eventually failed, and what the family tree fails to show, is that when he died in 1799, Edmund was sadly a pauper. However, although we have no firm evidence, there is a possible clue in the family tree.

Family Tree of Edmund Linfield, 1722-1799


It is interesting to note that Edmund’s three sons all predeceased him. The eldest, James died in 1791 at the age of 31 or 32, and he may well have helped his father in the business with the eventual prospect of taking it over. Increasing infirmity probably precluded Edmund from continuing with his clockmaking skills, but the premature death of his son would have finished the business completely since there was nobody else to take over. In such circumstances, without any means of support, he ended his days in the local poor house. Such a scenario may well describe the situation which developed. We still need to find out what happened to his wife, since there is no record of her burial in the Storrington parish registers.

I wonder how many clocks Edmund made during his career. Assuming he probably worked at least 40 years, and he finished a clock every two weeks (the usual time taken to complete a clock), the maximum he could have completed during his lifetime would be 1000. However, taking into account possible vagaries in demand – which he must have experienced in a small Sussex village – and the fact that he probably made all his clocks to order, the final total would have been much lower – probably less than half this amount. In order to make a living, he would have found it necessary to supplement his income by other means; perhaps he also repaired and serviced local clocks, for example. But in the end it was either incapacity or a serious decline in the demand for his clocks which destroyed his business and forced him into the workhouse. It may well be that he failed to adapt to changing fashions, such as the introduction of the white dial which began in 1772, although the majority began from about 1780. However, by 1790 most longcase clocks had white dials. For someone who had been making brass dial clocks since 1750 or thereabouts, it would have been a very difficult process to adapt to the new technology, particularly as there were a number of impediments involved. In remote rural Sussex, Edmund may have failed completely to realise that fashions were changing.

References Loomes, Brian The Concise Guide to British Clocks (Barrie &amp Jenkins Ltd, 1992) Tyler, E J The Clockmakers of Sussex (Watch & Clock Book Society, 1986)